Ocelots

Twice the size of the average house cat, the ocelot is a sleek animal with a gorgeous dappled coat. These largely nocturnal cats use keen sight and hearing to hunt rabbits, rodents, iguanas, fish, and frogs. They also take to the trees and stalk monkeys or birds. Unlike many cats, they do not avoid water and can swim well.

Like other cats, ocelots are adapted for eating meat. They have pointed fangs used to deliver a killing bite, and sharp back teeth that can tear food like scissors. Ocelots do not have teeth appropriate for chewing, so they tear their food to pieces and swallow it whole. Their raspy tongues can clean a bone of every last tasty morsel.

Many ocelots live under the leafy canopies of South American rain forests, but they also inhabit brushlands and can be found as far north as Texas. These cats can adapt to human habitats and are sometimes found in the vicinity of villages or other settlements.

Ocelots’ fine fur has made them the target of countless hunters, and in many areas they are quite rare, including Texas, where they are endangered. Ocelots are protected in the United States and most other countries where they live.

Female ocelots have litters of two or three darkly colored kittens. In northern locations females den in the autumn, while in tropical climes the breeding season may not be fixed

Jati 12R

http://animals.nationalgeographic.com/animals/mammals/ocelot/

SPERM WHALE

The sperm whale is a toothed whale that lives in pods. It has a huge brain that weighs about 20 pounds (9 kg); it is the largest brain of any animal. The sperm whale has a single blowhole that is s-shaped and about 20 inches long. The blowhole is located on the left side of the front if its huge head. The sperm whale has a 4-12 inch thick layer of blubber.

Sperm whales produce ambergris, a dark, waxy substance (related to cholesterol) that is produced in the lower intestines, and is sometimes found containing squid beaks. Ambergris may help protect the sperm whale from the stings on the giant squid, its major food. Large lumps of ambergris may be vomited up by the sperm whale.

The fictional Moby Dick was a sperm whale

Sperm Whale


SIZE
Sperm whales are the largest toothed whales. Adult males grow to be about 50-60 feet (17-20 m) long, weighing about 40-50 tons (36-45 tonnes). Females are smaller, about 33-40 feet (11-13 m) long, weighing about 14-18 tons. The four-chambered heart of the average sperm whale weighs about 277 pounds (126 kg) – about as much as two average adult human beings.

SKIN, SHAPE AND FINS
The skin is usually dark gray to black, but is occasionally light gray. It has a distinctive, prune-like texture.

Sperm whales have the largest head of any animal. It can be about 20 feet long (6 m), 10 feet high (3 m), and 7 feet (2.1 m) across, and is about one-third of the whale’s body length. The head has a distinctive box-like shape. The heads are frequently covered with circular scars that are made by the suckers of the giant squid that they hunt and eat.

It has 5-foot (1.5 m) long flippers that are about 3 feet (0.9 m) wide. There is no dorsal fin but there is a small hump two-thirds of the way down its back. There are also some ridges between the hump and the tail flukes.

THE NAME
The sperm whale was named for the valuable spermaceti oil (wax) that this whale produces in the spermaceti organ (located in its head).

DIET, HUNTING, AND TEETH
Sperm whales are carnivores that mostly eat giant squid that live on the ocean bottom at great depths. They also eat fish , octopus, and skate. In 1998, off the coast of Indonesia, 3 sperm whales were observed attacking a rare, filter feeding megamouth shark. An adult Sperm Whale can eat about a ton of food each day.

Sperm whale teeth are uniform. The teeth in the upper jaw never erupt. The teeth in the long, thin lower jaw are conical and huge, about 7 inches (18 cm) long. These teeth weigh about 2 pounds (900 g) each. The lower jaw is about 16 feet (5 m) long and has about 50-60 teeth in it. When the whale’s mouth is closed, the teeth fit into sockets in the upper jaw.

SOCIAL GROUPS

The bonds between the members of sperm whale pods are strong and long-lasting. The members of a pod protect the young, the sick and the injured. Groups of females with their young are common. This group structure allows a mother to dive very deeply to hunt while leaving her young calf, who is unable to dive very deeply, at the surface and protected by the pod.

DIVING
Sperm whales are the deepest diving whales. Although they live at the surface they dive to hunt giant squid that are bottom dwellers. They have been known to dive as deeply as 10,500 feet (3,200 m), but average dives are about 4,000 feet (1,200 m) deep. The Sperm whale can hold its breath for about an hour.

SPOUTING-BREATHING
Whales breathe air at the surface of the water through a single, s-shaped blowhole. The blowhole is located on the left side of the front if its huge head. They spout (breathe) 3-5 times per minute at rest, but the rate increases to 6-7 times per minute after a dive. The blow is a noisy, single stream that rises up to 50 feet (15 m) above the surface of the water and points forward and to the left of the whale at a 45° angle.

LOGGING
LoggingLogging is when a whale lies still at the surface of the water, resting, with its tail hanging down. While floating motionless, part of the head, the dorsal fin or parts of the back are exposed at the surface. Sperm whales are often seen logging and are relatively easy to approach in this state.

LOBTAILING
Sperm whales also stick their tail out of the water into the air, swing it around, and then slap it on the water’s surface; this is called lobtailing. It makes a very loud sound. The meaning or purpose of lobtailing is unknown, but may be done as a warning to the rest of the pod or as some other type of communication.

VOCALIZATION
Sperm whales use echolocation to catch their prey in the dark oceanic depths. Mothers also use it it keep track of their young calf when they are diving to hunt; a calf cannot dive very deeply because it has to breathe much more frequently than the mother does.

HABITAT
Sperm whales are found in many open oceans, both in tropical and cool waters. Sperm whales live at the surface of the ocean but dive very deeply to catch the giant squid.

 


SPEED
The sperm whale swims leisurely at the surface at about 3-9 mph (4.8-14.4 kph). They can sustain a faster pace, when fleeing danger, of 21-27 mph (34-43 kph) for up to an hour.

REPRODUCTION
Sperm whale breeding is not very dependent on the seasons. The gestation period is over 16 months and the calf is born tail first near the surface of the water. The newborn instinctively swims to the surface within 10 seconds for its first breath; it is helped by its mother. Within 30 minutes of its birth the baby whale can swim. The newborn calf is about 13 feet (4 m) long and weighs about 1 ton (0.9 tonnes). Twins are extremely rare (about 1% of births); there is almost always one calf. The interval between births is about 3-4 years. A female reaches maturity at 9-10 years (males reach maturity at 18-19 years) and lives to be about 40 years old. On average, a female will give birth to about 7-10 calves. Frequently, other whales “assist” in the birth. The baby is nurtured with its mother’s milk and is weaned in about 2 years. Calves drink 45 pounds (20 kg) of milk each day.

LIFE SPAN
Sperm whales have a life expectancy of over 70 years.

POPULATION COUNT
It is estimated that there are about 200,000 sperm whales world-wide. Sperm whales are considered an endangered species. These whales (and many other large whales) were over-hunted for many years, since their meat, oil, and other body parts are very valuable. Since whale hunting has decreased in the last few decades, their populations are starting to recover.

CLASSIFICATION
Sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) are toothed whales (Suborder Odontoceti) although DNA analysis shows that the Sperm whale is actually more closely related to the baleen whales. These whales are one of 76 cetacean species and are marine mammals.

Kingdom Animalia (animals)
Phylum Chordata (vertebrates)
Class Mammalia (mammals)
Order Cetacea (whales and dolphins)
Suborder Odontoceti (toothed whales)
Family Physeteridae
Genus Physeter
Species macrocephalus

- Nurul Shafiyyah 12R

http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/whales/species/Spermwhale.shtml

 

 

Red Panda as Endangered Species

The red panda is dwarfed by the black-and-white giant that shares its name. These pandas typically grow to the size of a house cat, though their big, bushy tails add an additional 18 inches (46 centimeters). The pandas use their ringed tails as wraparound blankets in the chilly mountain heights.

The red panda shares the giant panda’s rainy, high-altitude forest habitat, but has a wider range. Red pandas live in the mountains of Nepal and northern Myanmar (Burma), as well as in central China.

These animals spend most of their lives in trees and even sleep aloft. When foraging, they are most active at night as well as in the gloaming hours of dusk and dawn.

Red pandas have a taste for bamboo but, unlike their larger relatives, they eat many other foods as well—fruit, acorns, roots, and eggs. Like giant pandas, they have an extended wrist bone that functions almost like a thumb and greatly aids their grip.

They are shy and solitary except when mating. Females give birth in the spring and summer, typically to one to four young. Young red pandas remain in their nests for about 90 days, during which time their mother cares for them. (Males take little or no interest in their offspring.)

The red panda has given scientists taxonomic fits. It has been classified as a relative of the giant panda, and also of the raccoon, with which it shares a ringed tail. Currently, red pandas are considered members of their own unique family—the Ailuridae.

Red pandas are endangered, victims of deforestation. Their natural space is shrinking as more and more forests are destroyed by logging and the spread of agriculture.

- Andhira 12R

http://animals.nationalgeographic.com/animals/mammals/red-panda/

Owl Nesting & Feeding Habits

On silent wings, Owlscatch their food primarily at night. The large eyes that face forward allow this bird to have binocular vision, enabling it to judge distances between objects and maneuver through crowded enviorments.

The eyes of these birds are immovably fixed in their sockets. In order for the birds to follow moving objects it must turn its head.

Because they have long flexible necks, they can turn their heads 260 degrees.

The flight feathers of these birds are serrated at their tips, which has the effect of muffling the flapping sound of their wings during flight.

Few bird of this species hunt prey in full daylight, their hearing is particularly important. Many have asymmetrical skulls, with the ear openings at different levels. The right ear is positioned high on the head, while the left ear is low.

This allows sound to reach one ear before the other, this enables them to get a “fix” on the sound made by a prey animal. In experiments performed in totally dark rooms where eyesight is useless, owls have caught mice on a leaf littered floor with 100% accuracy.

Feeding Habits

These birds feed entirely on living animals, with the size of the prey proportional to the size of the bird, from insects to mammals as large as hares.

Like most other raptors these birds have sharp talons for seizing and holding prey. Their hooked beak is designed for tearing meat.

Any food that is indigestible to these birds, such as bones, hair, and feathers, are compressed and regurgitated as compact pellets. These pellets can aid in understanding what the birds eat by analyzing the contents within them

Nesting Habits

The nesting habits of these birds vary considerably. Some nest in large tree nest or among rocks, others are cavity nesters living in holes in trees.

Barn owls can be attracted to man-made bird houses. Since the decline in this birds natural habitat, farmers have begun using bird houses placed on poles or the side of barns and other outbuildings to attract more of these beneficial birds. Online live nest cameras are used to stream the activity of Barn Owls, allowing internet users the opportunity to watch and learn in real time. One of my favorites is Star Ranch. You’ll enjoy watching their live cams.

One of the more practicle reason for wanting to attract these birds is to control rodent populations. This minimizes the need for chemical poisons.

During the nesting season, these birds work tirelessly hunting mice to feed the young, thus helping both the owl and the farmer.

All birds of this species lay pure white eggs. These are laid over a period of several days and incubation begins with the laying of the first egg. The first eggs to hatch will have a better chance of survival than the later. Older nestlings will be able to compete for food over the younger and smaller birds in the nest.

Nestlings have enormous appetites and can eat their own weight in food in a single night.

Trying to locate these birds can be difficult since their movement during daylight is minimal. Their well camouflage feathers help them blend in with their habitat.

All of this leads to myths and folklore about these birds. Some believe he is wise while others consider he represents doom.

Either way, these birds are worth taking the effort to get them on your bird list.

- Andhira 12R

http://www.wild-bird-watching.com/Owls.html

Basic Lion Info

Diet:

Lions consume a wide variety of prey, from wildebeest, impala, zebra, giraffe, buffalo and wild hogs to sometimes rhinos and hippos. They will also feed on smaller animals such as hares, birds and reptiles. Lions are also known to attack elephants when food is scarce.

Population:

The lion population in Africa has been reduced by half since the early 1950s. Today, fewer than 21,000 remain in all of Africa.
Range

Though lions used to live in most parts of Africa, they are now found only in the south Sahara desert and in parts of southern and eastern Africa. Historically, in addition to Africa, lions were found from Greece through the Middle East to northern India.

Behavior:

Did You Know?
Both male and female lions roar, and that roar can be heard over five miles away!

The only social member of the cat (Felidae) family, lions live in large groups called “prides,” consisting of about 15 lions. Related females and their young make up the majority of the pride. A single male, or sometimes a small group of 2-3 males, will join a pride for an indefinite period, usually about 3 years or until another group of males takes over.

Lions within a pride are often affectionate and, when resting, seem to enjoy good fellowship with lots of touching, head rubbing, licking and purring. The males are territorial, and will roar and use scent markings to establish their domains.

Females do almost all of the hunting. They are mainly nocturnal and work in teams to stalk and ambush prey. Lions inhabit grassy plains, savannahs, open woodlands and scrub country. These landscapes allow the hunters to creep stealthily through vegetation and leap upon their unsuspecting prey.

Reproduction:

Did You Know?
Lions are the second largest living feline species, second only to the tiger.

Mating Season: Throughout the year.
Gestation: Around 110 days.
Litter size: 3-4 cubs.
Young cubs are vulnerable to predation by hyenas, leopards and black-backed jackals. The cubs begin hunting at 11 months but remain with their mother for at least two years.

Nurul Shafiyyah 12R

http://www.defenders.org/african-lion/basic-facts

Global Wild Life Trade

Global Wildlife Trade, adalah aksi jual menjual bagian tubuh binatang yang jadikan tujuan utama untuk menghasilkan uang, salah satu penghasilannya berasal dari perusahaan yang menjadikan bagian tubuh mereka untuk digunakan sebagai obat-obatan.

Aku mengerti alasannya untuk obat, namun hal tersebut adalah hal illegal dan yang di buat bukanlah obat yang jelas ataupun obat yang sering kita lihat, melainkan obat-obatan aneh yang tidak jelas khasiat dan kegunaannya.

salah satu binatang yang dijadikan korban adalah Rhino, bagian tubuhnya yang di ambil adalah tanduknya yang di jadikan obat tradisional dan juga obat penurun panas (versi tradisional bukan panadol etc.), anda tau Rhino di dunia ini tinggal dikit, dan ada kemungkinan dimana cucu-cucu kita tidak dapat melihat Rhino. Jika anda lihat Rhino di dalam kehidupannya yang asli yaitu in the wild anda dapat merasakan kehebatannya binatang ini dan keindahannya yang begitu luar biasa bagusnya. kulitnya yang indah dan keras menghiasi badannya yang kokoh, tanduknya yang panjang melengkapi raut mukanya….. namun sekarang keindahan itu terbatas karena mengecilnya jumlahnya.

selain Rhino, Gajah Afrika pun menjadi korban yang di ambil bagian tubuhnya adalah gadingnya yang di percaya bisa menyebuhkan masalah – masalah kesehatan yang berkaitan dengan darah. Dari 1.3 Million jumlah gajah sudah hampir setengahnya hilang…. Gajah adalah binatang yang sangat mengagumkan menurut ku, karena ia mempunya sikap seperti manusia terutama mother insting nya, dan juga gajah memiliki khas khas yang begitu indah, setiap gading yang di miliki gajah mempunyai cerita tersendiri, gading tersebut seperti layaknya biography tentang dirinya dan kehidupannya, gajah adalah binatang yang sangat kuat dan juga sangatlah hebat. keindahannya tidak terkelahkan, dan juga mereka sangatlah lucu.

Singa Afrika pun menjadi salah satu sasaran, binatang yang hidup dalam kelompok ini adalah salah satu binatang yang aku paling kagumi, bukan hanya dari fisiknya saja yang begitu mengagumkan, melainkan intraksi sesama mereka yang mengagumkan, cara pola mereka berkerja sama dan juga cara mereka berkomunikasi dalam berusaha menjaga sesama dan juga mengkuatkan hubungan di antara sesama.

-Nurul Shafiyyah 12R
sources: http://unicornontopofarainbow.posterous.com/?page=7

Beruang Kutub

Beruang kutub ternyata memiliki kemampuan berenang yang istimewa. Kendati bertubuh besar, predator berwarna putih ini mampu berenang selama berhari-hari di perairan terbuka dan menjangkau jarak ratusan kilometer. Hebatnya lagi, beruang kutub melakukan semua itu sekali jalan.

Para ilmuwan mengetahui kemampuan ini setelah mengamati data pelacakan pergerakan beruang kutub dengan Global Positioning System (alat pemantau lokasi berbasis satelit). Menurut mereka, kemampuan berenang jarak jauh ini terkait erat dengan respons beruang kutub terhadap berkurangnya lapisan es di Kutub Utara.

Lapisan es menjadi habitat penting bagi beruang kutub. Satwa terancam punah ini berburu mangsa, terutama anjing laut, di balik lapisan es. Namun, peningkatan suhu beberapa tahun terakhir telah menghilangkan lapisan es di atas perairan Artik. Akibatnya, lautan yang harus diarungi beruang kutub semakin luas.

Para ilmuwan khawatir, hilangnya lapisan es menyebabkan anak beruang kutub tenggelam saat berenang jarak jauh karena kemampuannya belum sehebat induknya. Walrus juga diperkirakan akan mengalami kesulitan karena hidupnya bergantung pada lapisan es.

Selama enam tahun, para peneliti dari United States Geological Survey menggunakan collar GPS untuk melacak 50 gerakan berenang jarak jauh yang dibuat oleh 20 ekor beruang betina dewasa. Sebanyak 12 ekor di antara beruang dewasa itu mengajak serta anak mereka. Bahkan, sepuluh ekor betina dewasa yang ditangkap setahun kemudian masih membawa anaknya.

Dari data yang didokumentasikan, kelompok beruang itu berenang selama 17 jam hingga 10 hari sejauh 54-687 kilometer di selatan Laut Beaufort. “Pengamatan ini menunjukkan beberapa ekor bayi beruang kutub juga mampu berenang jarak jauh,” ujar Anthony Pagano, seorang ilmuwan USGS sekaligus pemimpin penelitian.

Penelitian yang berakhir pada 2009 dan dipublikasikan dalam jurnal Canadian Journal of Zoology edisi 27 April 2012 ini menunjukkan frekuensi berenang beruang kutub meningkat saban tahun. Penelitian juga menunjukkan beruang tidak berhenti untuk beristirahat atau makan selama berenang.

Kurangnya data masa lampau menyebabkan para ilmuwan belum bisa memastikan apakah berenang jarak jauh merupakan kemampuan baru bagi beruang kutub. Namun, mereka tidak menjumpai adanya kawasan laut yang sangat terbuka di selatan Laut Beaufort dalam beberapa dekade terakhir. Kawasan laut terbuka inilah yang mengharuskan beruang kutub berenang hingga ratusan kilometer selama beberapa hari.

Source:

http://www.tempo.co/read/news/2012/05/07/061402049/Beruang-Kutub-Si-Perenang-Jarak-Jauh

Jati 12R